Archivo de la categoría: History

The Industrial Revolution Inventions

Our history teacher, Eleonora Ambrosini, asked us to create a presentation based on a chosen invention in the Industrial Revolution. This is because we have been studying the Industrial Revolution in History. I chose to do my presentation on Michael Faraday’s Electric Dynamo.

This is my presentation:

https://docs.google.com/file/d/0BwKIklLbmsthSUlwX2VxWHYydGM/edit?usp=docslist_api&filetype=mspresentation

Fakebook: Honore Gabriel Riquetti, Conte de Mirabeau

Our History teacher, Lenny Ambrosini, asked us to work in pairs and prepare a fakebook of a significant character/person in the French Revolution. I worked with Delfina Nicora and we had to do our presentation on Honore Gabriel Riquetti, a moderatenobleman that defended the Third Estate.This is so that we expand more on our knowledge on the French revolution (which is a topic that we are currently studying in History) and can have a first hand look on the “influencers” of this revolution.

This is our fakebook.

The Belin Blockade

Our History teacher, Lenny Ambrosini, gave us the task to watch three videos about the Berlin Blockade (the topic that we are currently studying) and complete a chart and answer some questions. Here is the task.

history berlin blockade

Answers:

1. What was life like in Berlin in the post-war era?
Life in Berlin in the post-war era was very hard. It was divided into 2 big areas (one from the capatalist and one from the communism) which had very different ways to run their area but mostly acted on their interest. The western Berlin was run by the soviets which was very resented from the wars so wanted it to stay crippled and never recover. The eastern Berlin wanted it to recover so that they could later on trade with Germany. The countries that had control over Berlin were both too ocupated on their own hatred toward themselves and trying to have more power that they didn’t focuse enough on Berlin .Thats why most of the germans lived in very poor conditions missing the most crucial things in life like electricty and gass supplies.

2. How did Soviet policy towards Berlin differ from that of the West?
They had lots of differfences. To start, in the estern part of Berlin everything was Russian, the indusrties had been transported from Germany to the USSR. Everything was of the state (a communist principle), travelling outside Berlin was quite restricted, there was no publicity allowed, everybody was supposed to have the same things, not too luxuirous (like cars, buildings, clothing) and there were only wan type and brand of every product.

3. Why was reform of the German currency a key issue for both sides?

The reform of German currency was like adding fire to the flame. USA doing this was like a way for the eastern countries to show Stalin they are not backing down and to show their power. This was also a way to stabelize the currency since there was overinflation in Germany before. Stalin did’t like this at all, in fact he descrived it as ‘provocative’ since he too wanted to introduce their currency.

4. Why was the airlift such a major feat?

There were lots of thing they had to be very aware and careful about. Each day for about a year (except for when there was bad weather and/or dangerous to fly) they had to carry 5000 tons to the Eastern Berlin in 5000 flights that were 30 seconds away from each other. The pilots had to be exact with speed, consistency and timing.

5. In what respect can the USSR and US be responsible for further increasing tensions during the airlift?

The airlifts had caused a lots of tension since as USA sent these airplanes there was no certainty that they would arrive to East Berlin safely. This created a sense of unreliablity between the USSR, USA and the germans.

6. Why did Stalin eventually agree to talks over the airlift?

Stalin did this because it was coming to a point were it wasn’t benefit the USSR or its reputation. He couldn’t fight against USA since it was still recoveting and had to worry about its own economic, political and social problems.

Extension question:

Who was more to blame for Berlin becoming a major flashpoint in the Cold War, the Soviets or the Americans?
I believe they were both to blame because they both acted in an impulsive and unresponsible way. As they were both trying to show more power and importance in the world, they were indiferent to mantaining peace. For example, the airlifts from the Eastern Germany was very risky since the USSR could have reacted in an agressive way which could have led to war. Or maybe when the USSR closed all roads into East Berlin, it was a threat to the peace they had all been trying to achieve.

The Manchurian Crisis

Our history teacher, Lenny Ambrosini, asked us to watch a video talking about the Manchurian Crisis. This is because, at the moment we are studying the League of Nations in the 30s.

How does the video open? What might the connection between the League and the opening scenes in Poland be?

I want to mention 2 things about the opening scenes. Firstly what we see, which is Poland being bombarding, which shows the failure of the League to maintain peace. Then, it starts by saying “The League of Nations had failed, (…) it failed to maintain peace” with this two things we know

What problems did Japan face? (Mention ALL of them)

Japan had suffered the most from the Depression in Usa. This was because it didn’t have many natural resources so they had to rely on internation countries for exporting goods and raw material. Also their population was growing and there wasn’t enough jobs to sustain the people nor food since there had been an agricultural failure. They entered their convulsive period of history which was that the politicians took a secondary role while the military were the real authorities and madde the decisions.

What was the role of the army in Japan?

The army was very influential, strong and powerful in Japan. They controlled the education system which meant that they could adapt their thought into the people since they were young. The administration to martial arts was compulsary from a very early age.

What did army leaders believe Japan needed?

The generals believed that the terrietorial gain of Eastern Asia would benefit the great empire of Japan.

What was the value of Manchuria?

Manchuria was rich in resources that the Japanese didnt have, but desperately needed for its economy. Japanese people also thought that chinese people were a sub-human raze, so it was a perfect way to weaken them and to be a step closer to their elimination.

What happened at Mudken?

Japan owned a railway in Mudken. Suddenly there was an explosion, which they accused the chinese for it. They said that it was neccesary for them to defend themselves and that the bomb was unacceptable. So they took the matter into their own hands and invaded Manchuria.

What did the League do about it?

China appalled to the League of Nations for help, who contacted the Japanese leaders and told them to withdraw. Japan’s army had other thoughs, and so the League send a member to right a report. It took about a year and their final decision was that Japan should leave Manchuria and that it should become a semi-independent country.

What was Japan’s reaction to the decision of the League?

Japan didn’t accept the League’s decision and decided to leave the League instead. This really showed how little authority and power the League had, and weakend its image greatly.  They had lost a very important member, which would later become one of their enemies since they would join Germany on WW2.

History Source Work

In the History class with Lenny, we were assigned different sources to analyze in groups. I worked with Mara, Lucila, Epi and Juan. Our sources were about the negative of the League of Nations in the 1920s.

history source 1

This is a Primary Source because it is a photo taken of a sign at the 1920s where immigrants were restricted.

This source deals with the issue of prejudice and intolerance. It shows that if you aren’t white you are not going to be serve. If you want to be served you had to be white. This is a racist message. It shows how black people and immigrants were treated in those years. By the time slavery was ended, in the US there were more black people than white.

The message of this source is how hard people faced intolerance and racism towards immigrants and black people. In this case Spanish and Mexicans were left apart. Those who weren’t white or Americans suffered discrimination. In 1924 the American government restricted immigration.

history source 2

This is a primary source; it`s a photo of people protesting about what happened to Sacco and Vanzetti. They two were victims of the red scare, which took place in USA in the 1920s. They were arrested on suspicion of armed robbery and murder. The trial became more about them being anarchists than of a murder, and six years later they were executed. This is a clear example of what was going on in the USA, the intolerance they had, how close-minded they were, the prejudice and the way they treated people who thought different. People noticed this, and realized that this was wrong and so, they supported Sacco and Vanzetti, they were on their side, and so they protested.

history source 3

This source is primary because the photo was taken in the time the event was happening and the author was a witness of the event.

In this photo you can see a police officer doing a surprise check on a Lunch Room to see if they had stored any alcoholic beverages, which after the prohibition law was passed was illegal.

The message behind this picture is that at the time police officers had to check constantly on the people in USA since they were desperate enough to break the law.It also shows the way they had to do it.The prohibition was negative because it increased the sales of drinks, the number of gangsters and illegal activities, and of deaths. This was because the banning of drinks made people more violent and critical to drink. Although in this picture the officers are doing their job honourably and correctly, there were lots of corrupt cops. You can see a lot of photos about prohibition since it was a very important and controversial part of the 1920s in the USA.

 

Sudetenland

Our History teacher, Lenny Ambrosini, asked us to work in group with a student from Senior 3 discussing a cause for ww2. I worked with Julia Molmenti and our topic was the Sudetenland.

After ww1, Sudetenland was taken away from Germany. In 1938 Hitler made it clear that he wanted the Sudetenland back, breaking the Treaty of Versailles.

Hitler was now very confident. Benes, the leader of Czechoslovakia was horrified by the Anschluss because he knew Czechoslovakia would be the next on Hitler’s list to take over. Britain and France weren’t prepared to stop Hitler, however they were bound to help Czechoslovakia if he invaded. Chamberlain asked Hitler if he planned on invading Sudetenland, he denied it, but in fact he wanted to.  The Nazi leader in the Sudetenland stimulated trouble among the Germans inhabiting and they demanded to be part of Germany. Hitler made it clear he was going to fight for it, if necessary.

Britain, France and the USSR were going to support Czechoslovakia if it came to war. Czechoslovakia was prepared to fight. Tension rose in Europe, people were getting ready for bombarding. Chamberlain met Hitler to make an agreement so he moderated his demands saying he only wanted some part of it.  Chamberlain thought it was reasonable and said there should be a plebiscite in the Sudetenland to know if they wanted to join Germany.  They were about to give the part he wanted but Hitler until he increased his demands. He wanted all the Sudetenland.

A final meeting was held in Munich to see what they would do with Czechoslovakia. They announced that Czechoslovakia was to lose the Sudetenland. They didn’t consult the Czechs neither the USSR.  Chamberlain and Hitler published a joined declaration which Chamberlain said would bring peace to our time.

 

Sources:

Czechoslovakia 3

This is a cartoon by the British cartoonist Sidney Stube. It was published on the 3 October 1938 in the Daily Express

The cartoon shows, Chamberlain going head to head with Mars (the god of war) in front of a map of Europe.  Mars seems angry with Chamberlain as he had stopped a war when it looked inevitably. It is also important to mention the different objects on the table. Mars has weapons while Chamberlain has ordinary objects which represent Chamberlains’ achieving peace, not by force, but by his talking.

This cartoon is a form to demonstrate Britain’s point of view. Sturbe is prasin Chamberlain of avoiding war, showing him as the man who saved Europe.

 

 

‘We, the German Fuhrer and Chancellor and the British Prime Minister, have had a further meeting today and are agreed in recognizing the question of Anglo-German relations as of the first importance for the two countries and for Europe.

We regard the agreement signed last night and the Anglo-German naval agreement as symbolic of the desire of our two people never to go to war with one another again.

We are resolved that the method of concern our two countries, and we are determined to continue insulation shall be the method adopted to deal with any other questions that may con our efforts to remove probable sources of difference and thus contribute to assure the peace of Europe.’

Joint communiqué issued on 30 September 1938 in Munich by Chamberlain and Hitler

(the famous ‘piece of paper’).

Speech recording: http://www.earthstation1.com/WWIIAudio/ncpaper1.wav

This source is part from a document read out by Chamberlain at Croydon Airport after his return to the United Kingdom.

After his return, Chamberlain was celebrated as the man who had brought peace to Europe.  On September 29th, Britain, Germany and France met in Munich where the had made an agreement to give the Sudetenland to Germany to avoid war.

Although this speech was said by Chamberlain both France and Britain thought war had been prevented, but in fact it didn’t.

 

Czechoslovakia

This cartoon, by the British cartoonist Sidney ‘George’ Strube, appeared in the Daily Express on 16 March 1939.

It shows the attitude of the British public towards Germany.

The Swastika and the Nazi soldier’s helmet symbolize the Nazi militarism. Hitler is the evil aggressor who annexes Czechoslovakia. The hand is labeled ‘power politics’ and it is seen as a force of injustice, bad faith and lies. Hitler’s annexation is a ‘breach of faith’ which breaks Munich. The light of ‘independence’ of the Czech state is about to be snuffed out. It represents Hitler killing the Czech democracy.

 

[Hitler] could make it appear – he, who, alone in Europe, had mastered the new technique of bloodless conquest, as the Anschluss and Munich had proved – that the President of Czechoslovakia had actually and formally asked for it.

William Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (1959).

At 6am on 15 March 1939, German troops poured into Czechoslovakia.  The anti-Nazi American journalist and historian William Shirer comments: ‘A long night of German savagery now settled over Prague and the Czech lands’.  Slovakia was given independence under German ‘protection’, and Ruthenia was given to Hungary.

 

This is a video, that shows Hitler’s determination and drive to have all of Sudetenland. It is very noticible, how he uses the excuse of ‘rescuing’ the Germans in the Sudetenland, to justify his demands.

 

 

 

History Essay

Lenny Ambrosini , our History teacher, asked us to write an essay about how far the 1920s was a won decade.

How far was the 1920s a won decade?

The 1920s was a decade which had lots of drastic changes due to the end of WW1. Both Europe and USA were trying to recover from their poor economical state. USA isolated which caused the boom, state of mind and more. Europe, instead, try to unify (but were against Germany) and created The League of Nations. They both had some positive things and some negative.

On the one hand, the 1920s was a won decade for USA. Firstly, they decide to isolate which helped them concentrate more on themselves and improve their economical state faster and more efficiently. Isolation helped the consuming and producing of national products. Secondly, there was the economic boom which was caused by the decrease of taxes. Before Americans could only afford necessary things (except citizens which were rich) due to the high taxation. As they didn’t have to worry anymore they started spending their money on entertainment, radios, transportation and more. Thirdly, the industrialization was one of the main causes for the boom. With new machinery came lower prices, more production and better quality. The industrial strength and the new industries were developing new inventions; the most popular was the car. Also, lots of people were starting to move from rural areas to the city for more job opportunities and a better lifestyle. Lastly, women had much more social and political rights. They didn’t need a chaperone for dates, they could smoke in public, and their clothes weren’t so restrictive along other things.
Nevertheless, the changes weren’t all positive. Firstly, as they isolated and created tariffs their international sales decreased a lot. When the war was happening, Europe was their main importers because they couldn’t produce much while at war. So when WW1 was over, European countries started producing again, created tariffs against USA and were too poor to import products or food from other countries. That was a big problem, especially for farmers because when the war was going they had to expand their lands and the people who were buying before stopped. That caused overproduction because they couldn’t sell it all nationally. So the food they couldn’t sell they had to throw away and they lost a lot of money. Secondly, in the 1920s there was alcohol prohibition. That created a lot violence, delinquency and corruption. It was very unsafe. Illegal alcohol was more popular than ever. People were so desperate that they tried to make it themselves and normally died because of the lack of experience. Thirdly, although women were getting more freedom and rights, there was lots of intolerance and prejudice. As more immigrants and black people arrived in USA, there were groups like the KKK (Ku Klux Klan) a movement created by white people, which used violence to intimidate black people. Also, there was the Red Scare which was when Americans were afraid that immigrants (espescially Europeans) would change the government into communist.

On the other hand, the glory of the 1920´s for Europe was the League of Nations. Firstly, the conflicts were solved. Upper Silesia along with the Aaland Islands were both cases in which countries accepted the Leagues decision and war was avoided. In other cases, like Bulgaria and Corfu, the League of Nations decision was unfair and not accepted, but they were partly successful because war was dodged. Secondly, the League created mandates and helped newly formed countries develop. Thirdly, there were successful committees created by the League of Nations that contributed in the improvement of: Slavery, Transport Commissions, the Refugees, Health and more.

However, there were also negative aspects. Firstly, in the case of the Geneva Protocol, Vilna and more were some examples of unresolved conflict which in fact weakened it. Secondly, disarmament didn´t work as it was planned. It was unfair since Germany had to reduce her army, warships and submarines and the other countries never did disarm. Thirdly, as USA never joined the League they didn’t have financial support.

In conclusion, although it did have its negative aspects, it was a won decade for the amount of improvement they did throughout the 1920s.